The main materials you can access from the repeatable mines in Egypt region are coal, lumber, copper, iron ore, tin, herbs, fish, berries, mushrooms, watermelons, worms, vegetable roots & coins.
Also some Egypt region repeatable mines do provide a small amount of other things such as iron, bronze, gems, apples, sugar, flour & treasure pieces.
Check out the Wiki pages for information in relation to the types & amounts of materials each Egypt region repeatable mines provides.
You use a lot of lumber, stone, bronze & iron to dig out your underground camp slots.
You make bronze & iron in your foundry.
You can gain quite a lot of good materials from the old stories that Pixel is still offering for 100 gems.
Check out the various Wiki pages to choose which stories are the best suited to you based on your current game progress & needs.